Wei Pan, PhD
Dr. Wei Pan is an Associate Professor and Faculty Lead for the Research Area of Excellence in Methods and Analytics at the Duke University School of Nursing. He received his PhD in Measurement and Quantitative Methods from Michigan State University in 2001 and his MS in Statistics from Fuzhou University in China in 1989.
His research work focuses on causal inference and propensity score methods, multilevel and structural modeling, research synthesis and meta-analysis, measurement and evaluation, and their applications in the social, behavioral, and health sciences, such as substance abuse and symptom management.
He has been involved in many research projects funded by federal agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education. He has published numerous refereed journal articles on both methodological and applied research studies. His recently published book entitled "Propensity Score Analysis: Fundamentals and Developments" tackles both methodological and practical issues in propensity score analysis, a statistical technique for reducing selection bias so as to increase the validity of causal inference from non-randomized controlled trials or observational studies.
Academic Program Affiliations
- PhD in Nursing Program
- Doctor of Nursing Practice Program
- PhD - Michigan State University
- MS - Fuzhou University, China
Research InterestsAreas of research interest: • Causal inference and propensity score analysis • Multilevel, longitudinal, and structural modeling • Research synthesis and meta-analysis • Measurement, evaluation, and psychometrics • Substance use and abuse • Adolescent health
Awards and Honors
- 2011 || Provost’s List of Most Productive Faculty, University of Cincinnati
- 2007 || Outstanding Service Award, College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati
- 2002 || College Faculty Incentive Awards for research and scholarship, College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati
- 1998 || Inducted, Phi Beta Delta (Honor Society for International Scholars)
- 1997 || University Graduate Fellowships, Michigan State University
- 1994 || Institute Distinguished Young Faculty Award, East China Institute of Metallurgy, Ma’anshan, China
Areas of Interest
- 1988 -- Pan, W. Creative thinking and mathematical discovery [Chinese]. Journal of East China Institute of Metallurgy. 1988 5(1); 68-75.
- 1991 -- Pan, W. On the optimal selection of discriminant analysis methods [Chinese]. Application of Statistics and Management. 1991 10(1); 32-36.
- 1996 -- Pan, W. A comparative study of commonly used statistical pattern recognition methods [Chinese]. Journal of East China Institute of Metallurgy. 1996 13(3); 19-23.
- 1996 -- Pan, W. From emphasizing on passing on knowledge to developing qualities and abilities [Chinese]. East China Institute of Metallurgy Research on Higher Education. 1996 24(1); 59-61.
- 1996 -- Pan, W. From teaching to the tests to teaching for abilities: An orientation in the teaching reform of mathematics for technology [Chinese]. Journal of Mathematics for Technology. 1996 12(2); 121-122.
- 2003 -- Pan, W. and Frank, K. A. A probability index of the robustness of a causal inference. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. December, 2003 28 315-337.
- 2003 -- PubMed # : 12915175 -- Stöffelmayr, B. and Wadland, W. C. and Pan, W. An examination of the process of relapse prevention therapy designed to aid smoking cessation. Addict Behav. September, 2003 28(7); 1351-8.
- 2004 -- Pan, W. and Frank, K. A. An approximation to the distribution of the product of two dependent correlation coefficients. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation. June, 2004 74(6); 419-443.
- 2004 -- Pan, W. and Tang, M. Examining the effectiveness of innovative instructional methods on reducing statistics anxiety for graduate students in the social sciences. Journal of Instructional Psychology,. June, 2004 31(2); 149-159.
- 2005 -- PubMed # : 16182136 -- Guo, J. J. and Jang, R. and Keller, K. N. and McCracken, A. L. and Pan, W. and Cluxton, R. J. Impact of school-based health centers on children with asthma. J Adolesc Health. October, 2005 37(4); 266-74.
- 2005 -- Pan, W. and Tang, M. Students’ perceptions on factors of statistics anxiety and instructional strategies. Journal of Instructional Psychology. September, 2005 32(3); 205-215.
- 2005 -- PubMed # : 16287388 -- Rye, M. S. and Pargament, K. I. and Pan, W. and Yingling, D. W. and Shogren, K. A. and Ito, M. Can group interventions facilitate forgiveness of an ex-spouse? A randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 73(5); 880-92.
- 2005 -- PubMed # : 16389495 -- Sale, E. and Sambrano, S. and Springer, J. F. and Peña, C. and Pan, W. and Kasim, R. Family protection and prevention of alcohol use among Hispanic youth at high risk. Am J Community Psychol. December, 2005 36(3-4); 195-205.
- 2006 -- PubMed # : 16740673 -- Pan, W. Proactive telephone counseling as an adjunct to minimal intervention for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis. Health Educ Res. June, 2006 21(3); 416-27.
- 2007 -- Pan, W. and Bai, H. Methodological gap in quantitative analysis of cross-cultural research data. New Waves: Educational Research and Development,. March, 2007 11(3); 20-25.
- 2008 -- Bai, H. and Pan, W. Resampling methods revisited: Advancing the understanding and applications in educational research. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. April, 2008 31(1); 45-62.
- 2008 -- Pan, W. and Guo, S. and Alikonis, C. and Bai, H. Do intervention programs assist students to succeed in college? A multilevel longitudinal study. College Student Journal. March, 2008 42(1); 90-98.
- 2008 -- PubMed # : 18787939 -- Stoia-Caraballo, R. and Rye, M. S. and Pan, W. and Brown Kirschman, K. J. and Lutz-Zois, C. and Lyons, A. M. Negative affect and anger rumination as mediators between forgiveness and sleep quality. J Behav Med. December, 2008 31(6); 478-88.
- 2008 -- Tang, M. and Pan, W. and Newmeyer, M. D. Factors influencing high school students’ career aspirations. Professional School Counseling. June, 2008 11(5); 285-295.
- 2008 -- PubMed # : 18579863 -- Xu, Y. and Savage, C. and Toobert, D. and Pan, W. and Whitmer, K. Adaptation and testing of instruments to measure diabetes self-management in people with type 2 diabetes in mainland China. J Transcult Nurs. July, 2008 19(3); 234-42.
- 2008 -- PubMed # : 18613066 -- Xu, Y. and Toobert, D. and Savage, C. and Pan, W. and Whitmer, K. Factors influencing diabetes self-management in Chinese people with type 2 diabetes. Res Nurs Health. December, 2008 31(6); 613-25.
- 2009 -- Bai, H. and Pan, W. An application of a new multivariate resampling method to multiple regression. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoints. Fall, 2009 35(1); 1-5.
- 2009 -- Bai, H. and Pan, W. A multilevel approach to assessing the interaction effects on college student retention. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice. 2009-2010 11(2); 287-301.
- 2009 -- Bai, H. and Wang, L. and Pan, W. and Frey, M. Measuring mathematics anxiety: Psychometric analysis of a bidimensional affective scale. Journal of Instructional Psychology. September, 2009 36(3); 185-193.
- 2009 -- Boat, M. B. and Carr, V. and Barrnet, D. and Macmann, G. and Moomaw, S. and Pan, W. and Nichols, A. Instructional change in preschool classrooms: A study of empirically-based teacher support. NHSA Dialog: A Research-to-Practice Journal for the Early Intervention Field,. October, 2009 12(4); 307-326.
- 2009 -- Boat, M. B. and Carr, V. and Barrnet, D. and Macmann, G. and Moomaw, S. and Pan, W. and Nichols, A. Improving instruction in Head Start preschool classrooms through feedback and support to teachers. NHSA Dialog: A Research-to-Practice Journal for the Early Intervention Field,. October, 2009 12(4); 347-353.
- 2009 -- Pan, W. A SAS/IML Macro for computing percentage points of Pearson distributions. Journal of Statistical Software. September, 2009 31 (Code Snippet 2) 1-6.
- 2009 -- PubMed # : 19440283 -- Pan, W. and Bai, H. A multivariate approach to a meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. program. Int J Environ Res Public Health. January, 2009 6(1); 267-77. PMC2672328
- 2009 -- PubMed # : 19639858 -- Yap, T. L. and Davis, L. S. and Gates, D. M. and Hemmings, A. B. and Pan, W. The effect of tailored E-mails in the workplace. Part I. Stage movement toward increased physical activity levels. AAOHN J. July, 2009 57(7); 267-73.
- 2009 -- PubMed # : 19650604 -- Yap, T. L. and Davis, L. S. and Gates, D. M. and Hemmings, A. B. and Pan, W. The effect of tailored e-mails in the workplace. Part II. Increasing overall physical activity. AAOHN J. August, 2009 57(8); 313-9.
- 2010 -- Bai, H. and Pan, W. and Wang, L. and Ritchey, P. N. Another look at resampling: Replenishing small samples with virtual data through S-SMART. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods. May, 2010 9(1); 181-197.
- 2010 -- PubMed # : 20634450 -- Guo, J. J. and Wade, T. J. and Pan, W. and Keller, K. N. School-based health centers: cost-benefit analysis and impact on health care disparities. Am J Public Health. September, 2010 100(9); 1617-23.
- 2010 -- Pan, W. and Bai, H. Testing and estimating direct and indirect effects of an intervention program on college student retention: A structural model. Enrollment Management Journal: Student Access, Finance, and Success in Higher Education. Spring, 2010 4(1); 10-26.
- 2010 -- Sun, S. and Pan, W. and Wang, L. A comprehensive review of effect size reporting and interpreting practices in academic journals in education and psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology. November, 2010 102(4); 989-1004.
- 2010 -- PubMed # : 20602696 -- Xu, Y. and Pan, W. and Liu, H. Self-management practices of Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes. Nurs Health Sci. June, 2010 12(2); 228-34.
- 2011 -- PubMed # : 21223406 -- Chen, J. and Davis, L. S. and Davis, K. G. and Pan, W. and Daraiseh, N. M. Physiological and behavioural response patterns at work among hospital nurses. J Nurs Manag. January, 2011 19(1); 57-68.
- 2011 -- Sun, S. and Pan, W. The philosophical foundations of prescriptive statements and statistical inference. Educational Psychology Review. June, 2011 23(2); 207–220..
- 2011 -- Sun, S. and Pan, W. and Wang, L. Rethinking observed power: Concept, practice and implications. Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. January, 2011 7(3); 81-87.
- 2011 -- PubMed # : 21636157 -- Xu, Y. and Pan, W. and Liu, H. The role of acculturation in diabetes self-management among Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. September, 2011 93(3); 363-70.
- 2012 -- Bai, H. and Pan, W. and Hirumi, A. and Kebritchi, M. Assessing the effectiveness of a 3-D instructional game on improving mathematics achievement and motivation of middle school students. British Journal of Educational Technology. November, 2012 43(6); 993-1003.
- 2012 -- Wilson, F. R. and Pan, W. and Schumsky, D. A. Recalculation of the critical values for Lawshe’s content validity ratio. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. July, 2012 45(3); 197-210.
- 2013 -- Sun, S. and Pan, W. Investigating the accuracy of three estimation methods for regression discontinuity design. Journal of Experimental Education. 2013 81(1); 1-21.
- 2007 -- Barnett, D. W. and Hawkins, R. and Prasse, D. and Graden, J. and Nantais, M. and Pan, W. Decision making validity in response to intervention. 2007 106-116.
- 2008 -- Pan, W. and Bai, H. Coping with methodological problems in quantitative research on model minority. 2008 267-287.
- 2008 -- Wang, L. and Pan, W. and Bai, H. Detection efficacy of multilevel latent trait approach to differential person functioning: A Monte Carlo comparison with conventional person misfit statistics. 2008 535-542.
- 2012 -- Guo, J. J. and Wade, T. J. and Pan, W. and Keller, K. N. School-based health centers: Cost-benefit analysis and impact on health care disparities. 2012 397-415.
- 1990 -- Hu, Z. and Pan, W. Higher Mathematics (Vol. 2) [Chinese]. 1990 .
- 2012 -- Miller, P. C. and Pan, W. Recasts in the L2 classroom: A meta-analytic review. International Journal of Educational Research. 2012 56 48-59.
- 2014 -- PubMed # : 23607540 -- Chen, J. and Davis, K. G. and Daraiseh, N. M. and Pan, W. and Davis, L. S. Fatigue and recovery in 12-hour dayshift hospital nurses. J Nurs Manag. April, 2013 22(5); 593-603.
- 2014 -- PubMed # : 24510493 -- Bushnell, C. D. and Reeves, M. J. and Zhao, X. and Pan, W. and Prvu-Bettger, J. and Zimmer, L. and Olson, D. and Peterson, E. Sex differences in quality of life after ischemic stroke. Neurology. March, 2014 82(11); 922-31.
- 2014 -- Hwu, F. and Pan, W. and Sun, S. Aptitude-treatment interaction effects on explicit rule learning: A latent growth curve analysis. Language Teaching Research. June, 2014 18(3); 294-319.
- 2014 -- Sun, S. & Pan, W. A methodological review of statistical methods for handling multilevel non-nested longitudinal data in educational research International Journal of Research & Method in Education. Online February 18, 2014 .
- 2014 -- PubMed # : 24450474 -- Chen, J. and Daraiseh, N. M. and Davis, K. G. and Pan, W. Sources of work-related acute fatigue in United States hospital nurses. Nurs Health Sci. March, 2014 16(1); 19-25.
- 2015 -- PubMed # : 25173776 -- Lipkus, I. M. and Schwartz-Bloom, R. and Kelley, M. J. and Pan, W. A preliminary exploration of college smokers' reactions to nicotine dependence genetic susceptibility feedback. Nicotine Tob Res. March, 2015 17(3); 337-43.
- 2014 -- Sun, S. and Pan, W. A methodological review of statistical methods for handling multilevel non-nested longitudinal data in educational research. International Journal of Research and Method in Education. July, 2014 37(3); 285-308.
- 2015 -- Pan, W. and Bai, H. [Eds.] Propensity Score Analysis: Fundamentals and Developments April, 2015 .
- 2015 -- Pan, W. and Bai, H. Propensity score analysis: concepts and issues (Chapter 1) April, 2015 .
- 2015 -- PubMed # : 26215035 -- Pan, W. and Bai, H. Propensity score interval matching: using bootstrap confidence intervals for accommodating estimation errors of propensity scores. BMC Med Res Methodol. July, 2015 15(1); 53. PMC4517543
- 2015 -- PubMed # : 26505161 -- Vorderstrasse, A. A. and Melkus, G. D. and Pan, W. and Lewinski, A. A. and Johnson, C. M. Diabetes Learning in Virtual Environments: Testing the Efficacy of Self-Management Training and Support in Virtual Environments (Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol). Nurs Res. Nov-Dec, 2015 64(6); 485-93.
Grant Funding (Selected)
Pillars4Life: An Online Self-Management Curriculum for Cancer SurvivorsPfizer
12/2014 to 11/2015
Effects of Message Framing and Risk Feedback on CRC ScreeningNIH/NCI
09/2014 to 08/2016
Project Goal: To test a new way to get people who have never been screened to do so by giving them CRC risk feedback online and matching level of risk with either messages that stress the benefits of getting screened or the costs of not getting screened.
Implementing a Continuous Healthcare Innovation & Entrepreneurship Framework (CHIEF)The Marcus Foundation
06/2014 to 05/2016
Project Goal: To address the lack of an effective way for academic medical centers, in particular, to measure their present capabilities for supporting and accelerating continuous healthcare innovation and entrepreneurship (CHIE), or benchmark their present capability level against that of other, similar institutions.
Developing an Oral Health Intervention for Individuals with Mild DementiaNIH/NIDCR
09/2014 to 08/2015
Project Goal: To provide the infrastructure and the intervention materials to facilitate swift implementation of a future U01 project.
Diabetes Self-Management & Support LIVE (Learning in Virtual Environments)NIH/NHLBI
06/2013 to 05/2018
Project Goal: To evaluate the efficacy of a technologically based bio-behavioral diabetes self-management training and support (DSMT/S) intervention in a virtual environment.
Outcomes of Nursing Management Practice in Nursing HomesNIH/NINR
09/2011 to 06/2016
Project Goal: To test the benefit of a new staff interaction intervention (CONNECT) over and above a falls quality improvement intervention in reducing patient fall rates in nursing homes.
Doctoral Dissertation Research: Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Modeling for Multilevel Nonnested DataNational Science Foundation
03/2012 to 06/2012
Role: Principal Investigator / Faculty Advisor
Project Goal: To advocate the use of cross-classified multiple membership modeling as a powerful and flexible statistical tool to analyze complex nonnested multilevel data.
Playscapes: Designed Nature Environments to Promote Informal Science LearningNational Science Foundation
10/2011 to 09/2013
Role: Research Advisor
Project Goal: To implement, study, and improve on an early childhood approach to informal science learning through specifically designed natural play environments called playscapes.
Building STEM Capacity through Systematic Evaluation and Scaling EffortsOhio Board of Regents
01/2011 to 06/2011
Project Goal: To increase STEM capacity in Southwest Ohio by collaborating with STEM partners to scale-up high-impact best of class demonstration projects and STEM trajectory initiatives, and to strategically document and evaluate high-impact STEM projects within Southwest Ohio in order to better understand how these efforts contribute to capacity-building across multiple, interrelated, successively expansive systems within our “ecological STEM for All model”.
EnterpriseMath: Impact of Economics and Financial Literacy on Math Achievement and AttitudesCouncil for Economic Education
01/2009 to 12/2009
Role: Principal Investigator
Project Goal: To gauge the effectiveness of adding economics and financial literacy lessons into a standardized classroom experience with minimal teacher training.
Examining Different Curricular Approaches and Their Impact on High-School Students' Understanding of Algebra: Phase 1–Studying the Intended CurriculumNational Science Foundation
09/2008 to 07/2010
Project Goal: To examine how different curricular approaches to algebra impact students’ understanding of algebra and functions near the end of their high-school mathematics experience.
Management of Skin Toxicities following BiotherapyOncology Nursing Society Foundation
12/2005 to 12/2007
Project Goal: To describe the symptom experience when receiving epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and develop and test an intervention to effectively manage skin toxicity.
Teacher Quality PartnershipOhio Board of Regents
07/2005 to 06/2009
Project Goal: To address the critical need for large-scale and longitudinal research that examines the characteristics and practices of effective teachers and to identify the patterns and empirical linkages of teacher preparation and professional learning that promote student achievement as measured by academic growth.
Improving Outcomes for Head Start Children: Acting-Squared: Active Curriculum Training-Accelerated Child TrajectoriesAdministration for Children and Families, US Dept. Health & Human Services
09/2002 to 08/2006
Project Goal: To examined the effects of staff development and support on Head Start teachers' use instructional and managerial strategies.
Multilevel Growth Curve Modeling for the National Cross-Site Evaluation of the Extended “Starting Early, Starting Smart” ProgramsSubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Dept. Health & Human Services
03/2003 to 06/2003
Role: Principal Investigator
Project Goal: To model, analyze, and interpret the longitudinal multilevel data for the National Cross-Site Evaluation of the Extended “Starting Early, Starting Smart” Programs.
Evaluation of Health Outcomes & Costs among Medicaid Recipients Enrolled in School-Based Health CentersHealth Foundation of Greater Cincinnati
02/2002 to 12/2003
Project Goal: To evaluate the health economic impact in students enrolled in SBHC programs compared to students in comparable school districts.
National Cross-Site Evaluation of “Starting Early, Starting Smart” ProgramsSubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Dept. Health & Human Services
07/2001 to 06/2003
Project Goal: To design and implement a Data Coordinating Center for “Starting Early Starting Smart” programs that are designed to integrate behavioral and other services for families of young children at risk.
Ohio Early Childhood Indicators of SuccessOhio Department of Education
10/2001 to 06/2002
Project Goal: To provide credible evidence of early childhood program accountability in developing preschool children’s learning potential within the Ohio public school system.
National Cross-Site Study of the Children of Substance-Abusing ParentsSubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Dept Health & Human Services
07/2000 to 06/2001
Project Goal: To evaluate the Children of Substance Abusing Parents programs that test prevention and intervention strategies designed for children and their substance-using parents.
National Cross-Site Evaluation of High Risk Youth ProgramsSubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
07/1999 to 06/2002
Project Goal: To assesses the effectiveness of the two cohorts of the High Risk Youth demonstration grantees that are funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention to implement initiatives to prevent and reduce the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs among at-risk youth.
Smoking Cessation ServicesMichigan Department of Community Health
07/1998 to 12/1999
Project Goal: To examine the relative contribution of pharmacological treatment and psychosocial intervention on smoking cessation treatment outcome.